Seven other states signed the Paris Agreement but did not ratify it. In February, the World Bank said developing countries will take the lead in implementing measures to enable the transition to sustainable energy by 2030. Maintaining the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius would significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change. Rising temperatures are the result of anthropogenic activity – human pollution trapped in the atmosphere, which alters the natural functions of the climate. Countries around the world, such as China, the United Kingdom, Egypt, France and Germany, have pledged to rapidly reduce their infrastructure policies, in line with the best available scientific measures, in the hope of reducing their total emissions towards a long-term zero net emissions target of carbon neutrality. So far, Italy`s main policy instruments, which are addressing the new climate target in the future, are the SEN or the National Energy Strategy. There is a general consensus that the strategies proposed in SEN 2017 will be sufficient to meet the current 2030 target. However, there are two caveats: the first is that SEN 2017 is much less ambitious in terms of installed renewable energy and efficiency standards; The second caveat is that SEN 2017 will be designed as self-sustaining if, in reality, it was a phase of a broader scheme to achieve 80-90% decarbonisation by the middle of the century. Italy is therefore lagging behind in the prospect of keeping the world below 2 degrees Celsius.
By 2020, when the Italian government will have to present a second energy-climate package covering the period 2021-2050, much remains to be done, with the aim of deep climate protection. After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making « efforts » to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. The focus on climate taxes for businesses has been an essential part of the emissions reduction policy. Simply put, the world`s worst polluters would be financially responsible for their chemical contribution to climate change. The larger the polluter, the higher the cost – the typical rate set at $150 per tonne of CO2. These tariffs, which aim to improve air quality while creating a new source of revenue, run counter to Trump`s focus on industrial expansion. « We`re going down. » With these words, Donald Trump meant the break-up of the United States from the Paris agreement on climate change.
On November 4, 2019, the United States informed the custodian of its withdrawal from the agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  Five years ago, India, one of the countries that signed the Paris Agreement, had a largely coal-driven economy. It has taken important steps to introduce solar energy and recently eliminated 13.7 GW of planned coal-fired power plants. These shifts to renewable energy are in stark contrast to the current position of the United States. Theresa May said she was « disappointed » by Trump`s decision and reaffirmed Britain`s commitment to the deal, but she did not go as far as other leaders. Jeremy Corbyn called it « ruthless and regressive, » while the French, German and Italian governments issued a strongly worded joint statement. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020.