The United States and Canada maintain a close intelligence partnership and often coordinate law enforcement activities, with a particular focus on securing the border since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. As part of the Beyond the Border Declaration, signed in 2011, the two nations agreed to negotiate information exchange and joint threat assessments to develop a common and early understanding of the threat environment. investment in infrastructure, to take into account the continued growth in the legal movement of trade and people; integrated cross-border law enforcement measures; 43 The declaration resulted, in 2016, in an agreement on the exchange of information on persons who pose a clear threat, including the country`s respective no-fly lists. It has also resulted in other agreements, such as an entry/exit programme launched in 2013 to serve as a record of the other country`s withdrawal of entry data into a country, and a 2015 agreement to extend prior authorisation activities to all modes of transport. However, the implementation of these initiatives has been slow due to Canadian concerns about privacy and sovereignty. Canada and the United States have had similar policy debates about whether and how to address climate change caused by greenhouse gases. Both populations emit the highest levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) per person in the world due to a number of factors, including high incomes and consumption, reliance on personal vehicles, long journeys and cold winters. In addition, national infrastructure has been built in relation to inexpensive and generally abundant fossil fuels, responsible for most of the greenhouse gas emissions. Both countries have regions heavily dependent on fossil fuel production and processing. Other regions depend on importing energy from other provinces or countries or use hydropower to generate electricity. Energy regulation is primarily a provincial or state authority in both Canada and the United States. Environmental protection authorities are shared in both Länder by the Federal State and the Sub-Federal State.
Canada has generally sought a policy consistent with that of the United States, including that harmonizing aspects of greenhouse gases and other pollution control strategies could have considerable benefits in facilitating trade and facilitating compliance with transnational corporations. . . .